[Update 7.2.2021: a more comprehensive version of this post, which includes definitions, examples from real contexts of use, and expressions which can be used for mediating language, individual presentations and interactions can be found here]
You can find below a list with different expressions, linking words and discourse markers which may come in handy both for your individual presentation and the interaction phase. They will help you make your spoken output more cohesive (the relation between your ideas will be clearer); they may give you extra time to think (for example, fillers), and ultimately, they will help you sound more natural.
- Expressions to use in a speaking test (C2)
- Click here to see how fillers are used in real conversations.
- You can also check this list with ways to express deduction, inference and opinion.
- You may be interested in these tips for speaking tests.
In these videos you can find examples of how to use some of the discourse markers above:
(last updated on 21.9.2021)